Salud

HERNIAS, HAY QUE TOMARLAS EN SERIO

Sin importar edad o sexo se deben extremar las medidas de precaución al realizar esfuerzos como levantar objetos pesados o realizar movimientos bruscos.

La doctora Ligia Bravo Cuesta, médico de Salud en el Trabajo del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) explicó que malos hábitos en los movimientos corporales pueden provocar lesiones como hernias, padecimiento que si no se trata adecuadamente puede poner en peligro la vida.

Cualquier persona puede tener este tipo de lesión sin darse cuenta, ya que en  muchos casos se produce en la infancia o juventud, sin embargo existen síntomas que pueden alertar al paciente.

Las molestias que producen las hernias siempre son mayores al final del día y se alivian disminuyendo considerablemente por la noche cuando el paciente se acuesta y se reduce el tamaño de la protuberancia.

Generalmente el saco de una hernia con su contenido crece y transmite un impulso palpable cuando el paciente puja o tose.

Se debe recordar que una hernia es el abultamiento en un órgano a través de la pared de la cavidad que normalmente lo contiene. Ocurre cuando hay una debilidad o un desgarre de la pared abdominal a consecuencia del envejecimiento, una lesión, una incisión quirúrgica antigua, embarazo o una afección congénita.

Por lo general las hernias aumentan de tamaño por la presión ejercida sobre ellas, ya sea por elementos externos o corporales como tejido graso que empuja al débil o desgarrado. Como consecuencia de esto se forma una bolsa o saco en la pared abdominal. En este punto puede apreciarse un bulto.

La obesidad, la destrucción de tejido conjuntivo por tabaquismo, envejecimiento o enfermedades sistémicas son factores de riesgo y que se debe estar atento a cambios físicos sobre todo de la parte media hacia abajo del tronco.
Existe una etapa conocida como hernia reducible que no implica una emergencia pero que debe repararse, generalmente con cirugía, ya que si el intestino queda atrapado se corre el riesgo de estrangularla perdiendo la  irrigación sanguínea y bloqueando el flujo intestinal lo que precisa de una intervención quirúrgica de urgencia.

La hernia no desaparece sola o con tratamiento, de hecho, suele empeorar con el tiempo lo que hace que la cirugía de reparación sea el tratamiento estándar.

Las mujeres son susceptibles de este padecimiento después del embarazo, así como toda persona que realice esfuerzos de carga de manera incorrecta. Al alzar objetos pesados se debe dirigir la energía y el peso en brazos y piernas, evitando el esfuerzo en el abdomen.

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