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VIENTOS DE SANTA ANA, SU PARTE BUENA

Al llegar los vientos de Santa Ana , todos escuchamos sobre incendios, enfermedades, clima seco y mucho polvo.

Pero este suceso climático no sólo trae consigo cosas negativas, sobre todo en los mares cercanos a la costa.

Los vientos de Santa Ana son un fenómeno meteorológico que se da por los cambios en un sistema de alta presión, y traen consigo cielo despejado, bajos niveles de humedad, altas temperaturas y desde luego vientos fuertes.

Santiago Higareda Cervera, del Laboratorio de Pronóstico Meteorológico del CICESE, informó que aunque su duración puede variar, los vientos suelen presentarse de 5 a 8 días, de finales de septiembre a principios de marzo de cada año.

Aparecen primero en regiones de Estados Unidos como Los Ángeles y San Diego, en California, y posteriormente, si el sistema de baja presión desciende, se presentan en Baja California.

Contrario a lo que se cree, los Vientos de Santa Ana no siempre son calientes.

Al existir un cambio en los vientos del noreste, el viento viaja por diferentes regiones, principalmente zonas desérticas, de las cuales depende directamente la temperatura del aire.

Si en el lugar de origen hay altas temperaturas, el viento será caliente, de lo contrario, se presentará viento frío.

En Baja California, los vientos fluyen normalmente de mar a tierra, esto hace que entre determinada humedad a la costa. Pero al recorrerse los sistemas de presión se cierra el paso de dicha humedad, atrayendo el calor de los desiertos.

En Ensenada, el grado usual de humedad que se maneja es de 90 %; sin embargo, cuando se presenta la condición Santa Ana, la humedad puede llegar a bajar hasta 6 %, y en las noches la temperatura puede alcanzar 30 o 40 grados centígrados.

Pero no todo es viento seco, altas temperaturas y polvo. Los vientos de Santa Ana también tienen un lado positivo.

El doctor Modesto Ortiz Figueroa, investigador del Departamento de Oceanografía Física del CICESE, en su artículo “Condición Santa Ana… no todo es viento seco, alergias e incendios forestales” publicado en 2009 en la revista GEOS, destaca que estos vientos funcionan como un mecanismo que contribuye primordialmente a la fertilización del océano cercano a la península de Baja California. Resultan importantes por el impacto que tienen en la dinámica de movimiento del océano, y por la manera como contribuyen al ciclo bioquímico de la costa.

En esto coincide el doctor Armando Trasviña Castro, investigador de la Unidad La Paz del CICESE. En su artículo “’Santa Ana’ winds and upwelling filaments off Northern Baja California”, publicado en la revista Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans en 2003, donde  señaló que por un lado, el polvo que traen consigo se deposita en el mar, ayudando a los procesos de sedimentación y favoreciendo la producción de hierro, elemento que, a su vez, enriquece la parte superior de los océanos.

Por otro lado, al provocar un proceso oceanográfico conocido como surgencia, los vientos de Santa Ana hacen que baje la temperatura superficial del agua de mar cerca de la costa.

Resulta que estos vientos generan un desplazamiento neto del agua en la superficie, de la costa hacia mar adentro, lo que provoca un descenso en el nivel del mar en la costa. En respuesta a ello se producen movimientos ascendentes mediante los cuales las aguas de niveles subsuperficiales son llevados a la superficie.

El artículo establece que estos movimientos ayudan a que las aguas profundas, frías y muy ricas en nutrientes, afloren en la superficie – donde las aguas han sido empobrecidas por el consumo biológico-, fertilizándola.

Una surgencia puede provenir de 30 a 50 metros de profundidad. La intensa presión del viento, ya sea positiva o negativa, hace que los flujos de viento sean capaces de producir bandas de surgencia o hundimiento fuera de la costa.

Así, se pueden generar filamentos fríos que logran extenderse hasta más de 200 km fuera de la costa

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